Stephen Wolfram is known for his work in computer science, mathematics, and in theoretical physics. He is the founder and CEO of the software company Wolfram Research where he worked as chief designer of Mathematica and the Wolfram Alpha answer engine. His recent work has been on knowledge-based programming, expanding and refining the Wolfram Language, which is the programming language of the mathematical symbolic computation program Mathematica.

In April of 2020, Wolfram announced the Wolfram Physics Project as an effort to reduce and explain all the laws of physics within a paradigm of a hypergraph that is transformed by minimal rewriting rules which obey the Church-Rosser property. The effort is a continuation of the ideas he originally described in A New Kind of Science. The foundational idea is the exploration of the emergent complexity of abstract rewriting systems (termed “substitution system” on Wolfram MathWorld), where the systems explored mainly lie at a minimalist extreme. Most examples come from a rewriting system on ordered graphs; some concepts are illustrated by examples pertaining to string rewriting systems. Many of the computational phenomena obtained in these systems bear analogy to Wolfram’s previous investigations into cellular automata. This newly introduced ordered-graph system lends itself to geometrical interpretation in a way that cellular automata did not, and it is mainly these geometrical interpretations that provide an entry point into analogy with physical law. Wolfram claims that “From an extremely simple model, we’re able to reproduce special relativity, general relativity and the core results of quantum mechanics”. Physicists are generally unimpressed with Wolfram’s claim, and state that Wolfram’s results are non-quantitative and arbitrary. Stephen Wolfram and Christopher Wolfram were involved in helping create the alien language for the film, for which they used the Wolfram Language.

Bibliography : A Project to Find the Fundamental Theory of Physics, Publisher: Wolfram Media, Adventures of a Computational Explorer, Idea Makers: Personal Perspectives on the Lives & Ideas of Some Notable People, Elementary Introduction to the Wolfram Language, A New Kind of Science, The Mathematica Book, Cellular Automata and Complexity: Collected Papers, Theory and Applications of Cellular Automata.