Stephen Wolfram the creator of Mathematica, the Wolfram Alpha answer engine and the Wolfram Language.

Stephen Wolfram the Founder and CEO of Wolfram Research creator of Mathematica Wolfram Alpha and the Wolfram Language author of A New Kind of Science

Stephen Wolfram is known for his work in computer science, mathematics, and in theoretical physics. He is the founder and CEO of the software company Wolfram Research where he worked as chief designer of Mathematica and the Wolfram Alpha answer engine. His recent work has been on knowledge-based programming, expanding and refining the Wolfram Language, which is the programming language of the mathematical symbolic computation program Mathematica.

In April of 2020, Wolfram announced the Wolfram Physics Project as an effort to reduce and explain all the laws of physics within a paradigm of a hypergraph that is transformed by minimal rewriting rules which obey the Church-Rosser property. The effort is a continuation of the ideas he originally described in A New Kind of Science. The foundational idea is the exploration of the emergent complexity of abstract rewriting systems (termed “substitution system” on Wolfram MathWorld), where the systems explored mainly lie at a minimalist extreme. Most examples come from a rewriting system on ordered graphs; some concepts are illustrated by examples pertaining to string rewriting systems. Many of the computational phenomena obtained in these systems bear analogy to Wolfram’s previous investigations into cellular automata. This newly introduced ordered-graph system lends itself to geometrical interpretation in a way that cellular automata did not, and it is mainly these geometrical interpretations that provide an entry point into analogy with physical law. Wolfram claims that “From an extremely simple model, we’re able to reproduce special relativity, general relativity and the core results of quantum mechanics”. Physicists are generally unimpressed with Wolfram’s claim, and state that Wolfram’s results are non-quantitative and arbitrary. Stephen Wolfram and Christopher Wolfram were involved in helping create the alien language for the film, for which they used the Wolfram Language.

Bibliography : A Project to Find the Fundamental Theory of Physics, Publisher: Wolfram Media, Adventures of a Computational Explorer, Idea Makers: Personal Perspectives on the Lives & Ideas of Some Notable People, Elementary Introduction to the Wolfram Language, A New Kind of Science, The Mathematica Book, Cellular Automata and Complexity: Collected Papers, Theory and Applications of Cellular Automata.

Demis Hassabis DeepMind Technologies Alphabet Inc. – Superhumans – String Theory.

Demis Hassabis DeepMind Technologies Alphabet Inc machine learning AI and systems neuroscience to algorithms construct to understand the human brain mysteries of minds.png

Demis Hassabis – DeepMind Technologies – Alphabet Inc.  – Superhumans – String Theory.

Demis Hassabis co-founded DeepMind, a London-based machine learning ( AI ) startup, with Shane Legg and Mustafa Suleyman who is a British artificial intelligence researcher, neuroscientist, video game designer, entrepreneur, and world-class games player has predicted that Artificial Intelligence will be “one of the most beneficial technologies of mankind ever” but that significant ethical issues remain.

DeepMind Technologies is currently owned by Alphabet Inc. DeepMind Technologies goal is to “solve intelligence”, which they are trying to achieve by combining “the best techniques from machine learning and systems neuroscience to build powerful general-purpose learning algorithms”. They are trying to formalize intelligence in order to not only implement it into machines, but also understand the human brain, as Demis Hassabis explains: ” attempting to distil intelligence into an algorithmic construct may prove to be the best path to understanding some of the enduring mysteries of our minds “.
In 2014, DeepMind received the “Company of the Year” award from Cambridge Computer Laboratory. In September 2015, DeepMind and the Royal Free NHS Trust signed their initial Information Sharing Agreement (ISA) to co-develop a clinical task management app, Streams. After Google’s acquisition the company established an artificial intelligence ( AI ) ethics board.